Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research Accommodating synonyms and antonyms rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3, applicants to graduate school.
Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait—correlated methods minus one, CT-C M—1that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. Accommodating synonyms and antonyms
These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.
Measurement process comprises a number of elements, including the attribute being measured, the instrument being used to measure, the methods of using the instrument, and the unit of measurement.
In contrast to the physical sciences, which generally have established and consistent measurement methods, measurement in the social sciences is still evolving, and there is therefore no single exact method for measuring individual attributes Urbina, Individual attributes such as, for example, intelligence, can be measured by using a number of different instruments and methods. To assess an individual's true psychological complexity, multiple instruments that employ a variety of methods for Accommodating synonyms and antonyms data are used.
For example, in assessing job performance, the primary instrument that measures employee performance may be supplemented by information from external sources such as peers and supervisors. In the field of measurement, method has a wide meaning, comprising all ways of measuring Kline, The method can refer to the source of information e. For this reason, different instruments that measure the same construct e.
The existence of these various measurement methods inspired Campbell and Fiske to develop the multi-trait multi-method MTMM analysis of construct validity. An instrument is assumed to attain high construct validity if there is a strong correlation between two instruments that measure similar attributes using different methods, while different instruments that measure different attributes have low correlations.
This type of testing assumes that the method of measurement should not affect the scoring of the attribute of interest: This approach implies that methods of measurement are interchangeable.
This concept of interchangeability of method was challenged by the discovery of the person specific method, meaning that individuals respond differently to different methods. The assumption that methods were completely interchangeable was also challenged by the discovery of method effects, meaning that using different methods may unintentionally require different skills.
For example, a test of Accommodating synonyms and antonyms may Accommodating synonyms and antonyms very different results if administered in a paper-and-pencil form or on a computer. Another crucial method effect was introduced by Marshwho found that instruments for measuring self-esteem gave very different results if the items were worded positively e. Currently, in the scale development literature, different item stems with different intensities and emphases are used to minimize response style bias e.
For this reason, assessments of mood, for example, should not only include items that measure positive mood e.
Both items are parallel and interchangeable—individuals who truly have a positive mood state will endorse the first item but not endorse the second—this mix of positively and negatively phrased items should reduce response bias. Mood is not the only example of this measurement-related concern; in psychological measurements, attributes that theoretically stand on the opposite ends of a continuum can occur simultaneously.