The designation "Armenia" applies to different entities: State Department map of an Armenia, and the current republic of Armenia.
The notion "Armenian culture" implies not just the culture of Armenia but that of the Armenian people, the majority of whom live outside the current boundaries of the republic of Armenia. Armenians call themselves hay and identify their homeland not by the term "Armenia" but as Hayastan or Hayasdan. The origins of these words can be traced to the Hittites, among whose historical documents is a reference to the Hayasa.
In the Bible, the area designated as Armenia is referred to as Ararat, which the Assyrians referred to as Urartu. Armenians have called themselves Torkomian or Torgomian. Armenia has been identified with the mountainous Armenian plateau since pre-Roman times. The plateau is bordered on the east by Iran, on the west by Asia Minor, on the north by the Transcaucasian plains, and on the south by the Mesopotamian plains.
The plateau consists of a complex set of mountain ranges, volcanic peaks, valleys, lakes, and rivers. It is also the main water reservoir of the Middle East, as two great rivers—the Euphrates and the Tigris— originate in its high mountains.
The mean altitude of the Armenian plateau is 5, feet 1, meter above sea level. Present-day Armenia—the republic of Armenia—is a small mountainous republic that gained its independence inafter seven decades of Soviet rule. It constitutes one-tenth of the historical Armenian plateau.
Surrounding Lake Sevan, it has an area of approximately 11, square miles 30, square kilometers. Its climate is highland continental, with hot summers and cold winters.
Despite its small size, it was one of the most densely populated republics of the Soviet Union. Half of its inhabitants live in the Ararat plain, which constitutes only 10 percent of its "50 plus african-american hookup rituals in other cultures with forehead" and includes the capital city of Yerevan.
Yerevan houses one-third of the country's population. Armenia is a rugged, volcanic country with rich mineral resources. It is highly prone to earthquakes and occasional droughts. Approximately 3 million people live in the republic of Armenia. Another 3 million Armenians live in various countries of the ex-Soviet Union—mainly in Russia. One and a half million Armenians are dispersed in the Americas.
About one million Armenians live in various European countries, and half a million Armenians live in the Middle East and Africa. The ethnic composition of Armenia's population is Armenian is the official language.
When Armenia was under Russian and Soviet rule, Russian constituted the second official language. The Armenian language is an Indo-European language. Its alphabet was invented by the monk Mesrob in C. There are two major standardized versions of Armenian: Western Armenian, Armenia which was based on a version of nineteenth century Armenian spoken in Istanbul and is used mainly in the Diaspora, and Eastern Armenian, which was based on the Armenian spoken in Yerevan and is used in the ex-Soviet countries and Iran.
This latter dialect was subjected to orthographic reforms during the Soviet era. There is also "Grabar" Armenian, the original written language, which is still used in the liturgy of the Armenian national Apostolic church. Mount Ararat has had symbolic significance for all Armenians. Today it lies outside the boundaries of Armenia.
It may be seen on the horizon from Yerevan, but like a mirage it remains inaccessible to Armenians. Ancient manuscripts depicting the history of Armenia are housed in the national library, Madenataran, and are valued national and historical treasures. Particularly significant symbols 50 plus african-american hookup rituals in other cultures with forehead Armenian culture include the statue of Mother Armenia; Dsidsernagabert, a shrine with an ever-burning fire in memory of the Armenian victims of the genocide; the ruined ancient monasteries; khatchkars engraved stone burial crosses; the ruins of Ani, the last capital of historic Armenia, which fell in ; and the emblem of the first republic of Armenia, its tricolor flag.
Emergence of The Nation. Many prehistoric sites have been unearthed in and around Armenia, showing the existence of civilizations with advanced notions in agriculture, metallurgy, and industrial production, with diverse standardized manufacturing processes and pottery.
The origins of the Armenians have long been subject to debate among historians, linguists, and archaeologists. In the s, linguists drew attention to the existence of many similarities between the 50 plus african-american hookup rituals in other cultures with forehead and Semitic languages. The only way to explain the linguistic similarities between these two linguistic groups would be to geographically move the cradle of the Indo-European linguistic groups farther east, to the Armenian plateau.
The Armenians and their plateau have been subject to various invasions. They witnessed Alexander the Great's expeditions toward the east. They fought the Roman legions and the Sassanid Persians, and in most cases lost. They stopped the Arabian expansion toward the north and provided emperors to the Byzantine throne. Having lost their own kingdom in the eleventh century to the invading Tartars and Seljuks, they managed to create a new kingdom farther south and west, in Cilicia, that flourished untilplaying a significant role during the Crusades.
Then, they lost their last monarchy to the emerging Ottoman Empire, after the latter's westward expansion was stopped at the gates of Vienna. For more than two centuries, Armenia was devastated by the wars between two empires: Starting at the end of the eighteenth century, the Russian empire also gained a foothold south of the Caucasus Mountains, defeating the Iranians and the Ottomans in a series of wars.
50 plus african-american hookup rituals in other cultures with forehead Armenian plateau thus became subject to the advances of three empires. At the onset of the twentieth century, historical Armenia was divided between the Russian and the Ottoman Turkish Empires. Starting in the s, periodical massacres of Armenians were organized by the Turkish authorities, which culminated in the genocide of — Armenia was under Soviet rule from through They envisioned a new Turkish nation-state Turanbased on a monoethnic and monoreligious society, extending from Istanbul to Lake Baykal in Central Asia.
The entire Armenian population living under Turkish rule was thus subjected to systematic annihilation and the survivors scattered through the world in the aftermath of what would be known later as 50 plus african-american hookup rituals in other cultures with forehead first documented genocide of the twentieth century.
Estimates of the Armenian dead vary from six hundred thousand to 2 million. A report of a United Nations human rights subcommission gave the figure of "at least one million. In late the Russian empire collapsed and its armies withdrew from the Caucasus front. Eastern or Russian Armenia was left unprotected and by the spring of the next year, the Turkish army was advancing toward the east, trying to reach the oil fields of Baku, on the Caspian Sea.
Only a last-ditch effort at the gates of Yerevan saved the Armenians of the east in Russian Armenia from the fate of their western compatriots in Turkey. After the victorious battles of Sardarapat and Bash-Aparan, the Turkish onslaught was contained and reversed, and Armenia declared its independence on 28 May Independence, however, was short-lived. After two years, due to the increasing pressure of, on the one hand, advancing Kemalist Turkish forces, and on the other, the Bolsheviks, the small landlocked republic of Armenia was forced to sign treaties that led to the loss of its territories and to its becoming a Soviet republic.
Soviet rule lasted seventy years. Having essentially followed the same path as most other nations under Soviet rule, the Armenians welcomed the dawn of the glasnost era, proclaimed by the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, as a means to correct the decades-old injustices imposed upon them. Armenians believed in glasnost, and framed their demands in its rhetoric.
In February there were impressive demonstrations in Yerevan and Stepanakert the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian enclave in Azerbaijan requesting the reunification of Karabakh with Armenia on the basis of self-determination rights.
Following these demonstrations, on 28 Maythe seventeenth anniversary of the independence of Armenia was celebrated for the first time since Soviet rule. During the summer ofmass demonstrations continued, followed by general strikes. In NovemberArmenians were subjected to further massacres in Azerbaijan, leading to massive refugee problems. Emergency measures were established in both republics and Azerbaijan began a blockade of Armenia.
The disastrous earthquake in Armenia on 7 December added to the existing refugee and economic problems.
On 12 Januarya special commission to administer the Karabakh region, under the direct control of Moscow, was established. On 28 Maythe Soviet Armenian government recognized 28 May as the official anniversary of the republic of Armenia. During the summer ofthe Armenian National Movement acquired legal status, and held its first congress in November In Januaryfurther Armenian massacres were reported in Baku and Kirovabad.
During the spring elections, members of the Karabakh Committee, Soviet dissidents, came to power in parliamentary elections.
The republic of Armenia gained its independence on 21 September The Armenian national identity is essentially a cultural one. From the historical depths of its culture and the dispersion of its bearers, it has acquired a richness and diversity rarely achieved within a single national entity, while keeping many fundamental elements that ensure its unity. Its bearers exhibit a strong sense of national identity that sometimes even clashes with the modern concept of the nation-state.
It is an identity strongly influenced by the historical experiences of the Armenians. Events such as the adoption of Christianity as a state religion in C. The republic of Armenia has thus far escaped the ethnic turmoil characterizing life in the post-Soviet republics. Minority rights are protected by law. The great majority of Armenians in Armenia and in the Diaspora are urbanites.
In the republic of Armenia, 68 percent live in urban areas with a population density of persons per square mile Contemporary Armenian architecture has followed the basic characteristics of its historical architectural tradition: During the Soviet era, however, prefabricated panels were used to build apartment A woman sells fruit at a roadside stand. Armenia has focused on small-scale agriculture since gaining independence in Food in Daily Life.
Staple foods are bread and salt. 50 plus african-american hookup rituals in other cultures with forehead a traditional meal, consists of wheat grain and lamb cooked over low heat. Armenians everywhere love barbecued meats and vegetables.
The pomegranate, with its symbolic association with fertility, is the national fruit. Armenia is also vine and grape country.